Stealth aircraft

Stealth aircraft (in English: stealth aircraft) or aircraft called very quiet aircraft which is designed to absorb and deflect radar uses stealth technology, making it more difficult to detect. In general, the goal is to launch an attack while he was still outside enemy detection. F-117 Nighthawk is one type of stealth aircraft which used the United States Air Force in the Gulf War.



Stealth aircraft have the ability to avoid detection, both visual detection, audio, heat sensors, as well as radio waves (radar). Visually, the plane more difficult to see if have same color as the background color (camouflage). In audio, of course trying to make the plane more calmly. In the heat sensors, aircraft are usually detected from the heat arising from the body or from the air temperature around them. Hottest part of the plane is usually a channel air exhaust or engine exhaust and the leading edge (the first part of the aircraft through the air). Heat from the exhaust can be reduced by mixing with a blast of cold air machine from the outside of the fuselage before exhaled out of the plane and extend the exhaust pipe (such as A-4 Skyhawk exhaust Indonesia which have longer than the standard version). Exhaust part is usually pursued by anti-aircraft missiles with infrared sensors. However, modern heat-seeking missile is now also have the ability to detect and chase the heat generated due to friction with the air surface of the fuselage.

Detection of radio waves is a way to prevent radio waves from the radar is not reflected from the body of the plane and returned to the radar. Radio waves can be absorbed if the coated fuselage RAM (radar absorbent material), is reflected in the other direction, or such that these waves become lost or mutually exclusive (this is what underlies the form of stealth aircraft which have a shape other than ordinary aircraft or a bit weird ).

Stealth aircraft are usually not 100% undetectable by radar. But because it has the RCS (radar cross section) is small, on the radar screen only visible for hordes of birds, not planes.


The discovery of stealth technology


Demon 'was developed by a Russian scientist, in 1966 by Dr. Pyotr Ufimtsev through a working paper entitled "method of edge waves in the physical theory Diffraction (Method of Waterfront Waves in Physical Theory of Diffraction) which is a working paper which is long enough but not long-winded one published by the media in Moscow in 1966. But the paperwork was not received warm welcome by experts there, because a lot of content that can not be digested by common sense. Whereas Ufimtsev are experienced experts in the Moscow Institute of Radio Engineering.


Formulation is a pure idea Ufimtsev Disable radar and its network of crude conclusions drawn from the James Clerk Maxwell, the British expert on 19th century where the mixed many times coupled with integrated reasoning, Ufimtsev calculates new ways, ie, forming a special geometrical shape of space reflect electromagnetic radiation. By creating a radar cross calculations that can be easily overpowered. He set a two-dimensional formula-sided configuration, such as tinkering with the procedure in a radar component. Result, the radar could be disrupted if confused with the earlier two-dimensional rays. The beam is actually still not enough but if calculated accurately from it can be created three-dimensional planes that are difficult to track by radar.

Theoretically, a lot of power to paralyze the stealth, but very much needed computer network that works very quickly. Exactly like watching the ball by using binoculars which can be localized but do not expect to menjejaknya so like the ball being played, the players have nowhere to dribble and not shoot the ball that might fly off somewhere with a BB gun at him.

In 1979, Russia to develop a reconnaissance plane and the pilot proved successful anti-aircraft radar to deceive the United States in the Nevada desert.


Fall into the hands of the United States


In 1976, a copy was eventually leaked and fell into the hands of the United States, necessarily translated by the U.S. Air Force technology division. Routinely, the experts at the Air Force sets, analyze and develop these steath technology. Among a spy plane SR-71 Blackbird, F-117 and B-2.

Principle Stealth Aircraft

In principle, so that the aircraft is a stealth (invisible) dalah ways to reduce the Radar Cross Section (RCS), which appear on radar. The first step is to make the design of the aircraft is such that the surfaces of the aircraft as small as possible to reflect the emitted radar energy to be captured again by the radar antenna. Even if necessary form of the plane did not reflect radar energy. If reflected, sought to be the reflection of radar energy is directed in another direction so that if someone is caught again, at least only a small portion. For that, the plane made a strange shape not as usual. As an example, the shape of the B-2 aircraft that have the same range in length with a range of DC-10 but made for flat and curved shape in the middle of the body. With this form, in addition to the radar beam propagation is slowed also provide a rebound effect in every direction.


Wing shape also affect the reflection of radar beam energy. Forms long, straight-wing aircraft to the side for example providing a perfect reflection so that the aircraft is easily detected. on the screen, point the planes RCS looks great.

Seeing this reality, then people make sayung wing backs, indeed minimize the reflection but not satisfactory due to the greater RCS, hence made the delta which makes most of the radar beam on the wing, most thrown in another direction. Then made the wings with crescent shapes like those of the next generation aircraft. By making the curvature of the wing, leading edge, then the reflection in the other direction more and more perfect.

Another design is to form a plane-sided facet facet kubustik like eye shape, as in the eyes of dragonflies. It is also found in the helicopter on the generation of 1980-1990's as the AH-1 Cobra and AH-64 Apache so that radar reflections are not returned to the radar antenna.

Then stealth aircraft design generally does not permit the pylon or a missile or rocket hanger suspended from the body and wings of aircraft such as that found in aircraft generally. So that the missile-bomb placed on a shelf (bomb bay), special.

Another way that is by using a special material known as RAM (Radar Anti material) which was successively a radar beam of energy absorbent material. These materials include epoxy composites graphyte form of carbon. Because of that material, then do not terpantulkan radar energy.

Nevertheless, the draft still is not perfect to fool radar. For example, the F-117 stealth aircraft had been shot down by anti-aircraft missile SAM (Surface to Air missiles) SA-2 Guidelines of Serbia when the NATO air operations in the year 1999 when the Kosovo conflict.


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